1. Henkel/Zischka, predict an average of around 82% invalidation rate in Why most patents are invalid. 16 December 2015, at https://www.tim.wi.tum.de/fileadmin/w00bcy/www/Res...; Hess/Müller-Story/Wintermeier, Are Patents merely “Paper Tigers”? Mitt. 2014, 439, available at http://www.bardehle.com/uploads/files/Patent_Papie...
  2. Henkel/Zischka make policy recommendations on the basis that many patents are latently invalidity. Available at
  3. Patents granted in Germany in 2015: 14,795 German patents and 67,666 EP patents validated in Germany
  4. See German Federal Patent Court 2014 Annual Report, at https://www.bundespatentgericht.de/cms/media/Oeffe...
    Veroeffentlichungen/Jahresberichte/jahresbericht_2014.pdf, at p.126
  5. BIPMZ 2016, German Patent and Trade Mark Office, at p.86. This does not include patents pending in opposition.
  6. Ibid
  7. See Ann, Patent Invalidation and Legal Certainty - What Can Patent Holders Expect?, July 5, 2016; Cremers, Gaessler, Harhoff and Helmers, Invalid but Infringed? An Analysis of Germany’s Bifurcated Patent Litigation System. Working Paper, August 1, 2014; Helmers and McDonagh, Patent litigation in the UK. LSE Law, Society and Economy working papers 12/2012; Hüttermann, Patents - Paper Tigers or Real Tigers?Mitteilungen der deutschen Patentanwälte 2016, 101, May 2, 2016; Kuhnen and Claessen, Die Durchsetzung von Patenten in der EU – Standortbestimmung vor Einführung des europäischen Patentgerichts, GRUR 2013, 592-597; Tapia, Assessing the quality of European patents, IAM Magazine, Issue 80, 2016.