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Publications: A Guideline to Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Intellectual Property

by Marta Duque Lizarralde

A Guideline to Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Intellectual Property

This guide has been developed to help businesses understand the basic tenets of artificial intelligence (AI), and the main steps necessary to ensure the protection of creations generated by AI.

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Categories: Artificial Intelligence and Data, Business Models, Industry 4.0, IP Enforcement, Open Source Software, Student Contribution

Research: The Value of Standardized Technology to Connected Cars

by Sunil Arya

The Value of Standardized Technology to Connected Cars

IPR & Licensing Department at a telecommunication company, as a part of the LL.M program in ‘Intellectual Property and Competition Law’ at Munich Intellectual Property Law Center (MIPLC), Munich

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Categories: FRAND, Industry 4.0, Internet of Things (IoT), Licensing, Policy, Standardisation, Student Contribution

Research: Mandatory Patent Pools

by Luca Maggioni, Diana Marin, Laura Natalia Morales Charry, Paolo Orlando and Victoire Guegan Master Students, Technical University Berlin

Mandatory Patent Pools

In this student contribution to 4iP Council's research, the authors explain the link between patent pools and standardisation in telecommunications and analyse the potential impact of mandatory pools for innovation. Patent pools are often perceived as a significant tool for widespread innovation. Yet, they can also lead to monopolistic behavior. In practice, patent pools are used by some stakeholders as a tool to organise the licensing of standard essential patents. Thus, pools are encouraged by the European Commission, especially for the information and communication technology (ICT) field with complex products incorporating multiple patents. Yet, to be efficient and pro-competitive, pools need to fulfill certain conditions.

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Categories: FRAND, Standardisation, Student Contribution

Research: SSPPU vs. EMVR

by Mirza Usama Baig, Ingra Marangoni and Tuğçe Özkepir Master Students, Technical University Berlin

SSPPU vs. EMVR

In this student contribution to 4iP Council's research, the authors focus on two different methodologies (for the calculation of royalties): Smallest Salable Patent-Practicing Unit (SSPPU) and Entire Market Value Rule (EMVR). They first introduce an overview of what surrounds the discussion, which institutions are involved in the patent ecosystem, as well as where the SSPPU vs. EMVR discussion arises. They then address the theoretical background of the SSPPU creation and evolution, focusing on the economic disadvantages of SSPPU. Furthermore, they list the consequences of applying a too low basis, mainly attempting to clarify the drawbacks of applying SSPPU.

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Categories: FRAND, Standardisation, Student Contribution

Research: Pirates of the 3D Realm: strategies for IP protection from the widespread adoption of additive manufacturing by consumers

by Alessandro Burro, candidate at Bocconi University LL.M. in Law of Internet Technology

Pirates of the 3D Realm: strategies for IP protection from the widespread adoption of additive manufacturing by consumers

Additive manufacturing is a pillar of the 4.0 industry. As it goes for other technologies throughout history, the cost of a 3D printing machine will sink lower and lower, and the accessibility to these machines by consumers will enable them to print with a vast array of materials, thus enabling them to print whatever they would previously buy, in a physical store or from an online retailer. It will be easy to infringe on an IP right with only a cheap 3D printing machine and a digital file from which the machine can take the necessary instructions. This paper considers the IP implications of this evolution and explores the various policies available, or that could be easily available with simple adjustments to current laws, to protect IP rights from the risks associated with the widespread adoption of additive manufacturing by consumers.

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Categories: IP Management, Patent Strategy, Student Contribution